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Biochip [Extra Quality]


In molecular biology, biochips are engineered substrates ("miniaturized laboratories") that can host large numbers of simultaneous biochemical reactions. One of the goals of biochip technology is to efficiently screen large numbers of biological analytes, with potential applications ranging from disease diagnosis to detection of bioterrorism agents. For example, digital microfluidic biochips are under investigation for applications in biomedical fields. In a digital microfluidic biochip, a group of (adjacent) cells in the microfluidic array can be configured to work as storage, functional operations, as well as for transporting fluid droplets dynamically.[1]




biochip



Microarrays are not limited to DNA analysis; protein microarrays, antibody microarray, chemical compound microarray can also be produced using biochips. Randox Laboratories Ltd. launched Evidence, the first protein Biochip Array Technology analyzer in 2003. In protein Biochip Array Technology, the biochip replaces the ELISA plate or cuvette as the reaction platform. The biochip is used to simultaneously analyze a panel of related tests in a single sample, producing a patient profile. The patient profile can be used in disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring disease progression or monitoring treatment. Performing multiple analyses simultaneously, described as multiplexing, allows a significant reduction in processing time and the amount of patient sample required. Biochip Array Technology is a novel application of a familiar methodology, using sandwich, competitive and antibody-capture immunoassays. The difference from conventional immunoassays is that, the capture ligands are covalently attached to the surface of the biochip in an ordered array rather than in solution.


(A) Biochip slide with 10 incubation fields, each with six different biochips. (B) Immunofluorescence staining that is positive for pemphigus vulgaris. (C) Immunofluorescence staining that is positive for pemphigus foliaceus. [Format adapted from van Beek et al., 2012.]


BioChip Journal publishes original research and reviews in all areas of the expanding field of biochip technology. Coverage spans a broad range of disciplines and topics, including protein chip, DNA chip, cell chip, lab-on-a-chip, bio-MEMS, biosensor, micro/nano mechanics, microfluidics, high-throughput screening technology, medical science, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring and micro/nanotechnology. The editors of BioChip Journal are committed to rapid peer review, to ensure the timely publication of the highest quality original research, news and review articles.


The Korean BioChip Society is an organization of biochip professional and others interested in the biochip profession, such as proteomics, functional genomics, Bio-MEMS, nanotechnology, biosensors and bioinformatics. It was originated from Protein Chip Society, which was founded in 2001.


Our Innovation Analysts recently looked into emerging technologies and up-and-coming startups working on solutions for the BioTech industry. As there is a large number of startups working on a wide variety of solutions, we decided to share our insights with you. This time, we are taking a look at 5 promising biochip startups.


The Global Startup Heat Map below highlights 5 startups & emerging companies developing innovative biochip solutions. Moreover, the Heat Map reveals regions that observe a high startup activity and illustrates the geographic distribution of all 39 companies we analyzed for this specific topic.


Over the last decade, several biotech companies have focused on producing biochips. These miniature laboratories are capable of running numerous biochemical reactions simultaneously. This allows researchers and emerging industrial biotech companies alike to discover and work with different types of biological reactions to identify and create important new drugs. One such application of biochips focuses on antibody discovery solutions.


Different RNAs control various functions in biological systems, including carrying instructions for protein synthesis, gene expression and control, and aid in chemical reactions. Emerging biotech and pharma startups develop biochips that replicate these functions. This also allows them to quickly discover novel drugs and therapies for various diseases like cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS).


The early detection of diseases is crucial to prevent further suffering, especially for various types of cancers. By employing biochips, both pharma and biotech companies are able to simultaneously assess numerous biochemical processes to identify novel treatments, delivery systems, as well as diagnostic solutions. The use of nanotechnology also enables point of care testing for diseases with rapid results.


Organ-on-a-chip (OOC) technology spans biomedical engineering, lab-on-chip, and cell biology to create a type of artificial organ. These multi-channel 3D microfluidic cell culture chips mimic the activities, mechanics, and physiological response of organ systems. Startups are recognizing the potential of biochip-based analysis, in particular for decision making, while treating numerous diseases.


While we believe data is key to creating insights it can be easy to be overwhelmed by it. Our ambition is to create a comprehensive overview and provide actionable innovation intelligence so you can achieve your goals faster. The 5 biochip startups showcased above are promising examples out of 39 we analyzed for this article. To identify the most relevant solutions based on your specific criteria, get in touch.


Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world.


Outside the research lab, drug developers are using the chip for drug discovery. For the hepatitis C virus to proliferate one of its proteins needs to bind RNA in a specific way. Quake used his biochip to screen 1,200 small molecules to see if any of them inhibited the protein-RNA interaction. They found 14, and the findings were used to develop a drug that then went on to clinical trials. The chip could employ this type of strategy to discover potential drugs to treat many more diseases, including cancer.


Not only does the microfluidic chip resemble the microchip, but it owes its conceptual origins to its electronic equivalent. In the following video from a 2011 TEDxCaltech talk, Quake explains how the integrated circuit, which was originally created to perform computations but soon shown to be useful for many other applications, inspired him to ask if the biochip could follow a similar path.


The emergence of pathogens resistant to existing antimicrobial drugs is a growing worldwide health crisis that threatens a return to the pre-antibiotic era. To decrease the overuse of antibiotics, molecular diagnostics systems are needed that can rapidly identify pathogens in a clinical sample and determine the presence of mutations that confer drug resistance at the point of care. We developed a fully integrated, miniaturized semiconductor biochip and closed-tube detection chemistry that performs multiplex nucleic acid amplification and sequence analysis. The approach had a high dynamic range of quantification of microbial load and was able to perform comprehensive mutation analysis on up to 1,000 sequences or strands simultaneously in


A.H. conceived the technology. A.H., R.G.K. and G.S. co-supervised the project and wrote the manuscript with input from the other authors. Integrated biochip and optoelectronic components were designed and built by A.M., R. Singh, M.W.M., M.M., M.H., N.W. and E.K. In silico assay design and signal processing algorithms were developed by S.B., J.E., R. Sinha, P.K., B.H. and H.V. Assay implementation and performance validation on clinical samples were executed by P.N., G.D., K.A.J., T.V., G.M., K.B.J., L.P., M.P.S., P.M., B.A.P. and Y.L. Key technical contributions for chemistry, mechanical design and fluidics were provided by P.G., L.B., P.S., N.G., M.T.T., R.B.M. and S.C.


Biologically active complexes such as ribosomes and bacteriophages are formed through the self-assembly of proteins and nucleic acids1,2. Recapitulating these biological self-assembly processes in a cell-free environment offers a way to develop synthetic biodevices3,4,5,6. To visualize and understand the assembly process, a platform is required that enables simultaneous synthesis, assembly and imaging at the nanoscale. Here, we show that a silicon dioxide grid, used to support samples in transmission electron microscopy, can be modified into a biochip to combine in situ protein synthesis, assembly and imaging. Light is used to pattern the biochip surface with genes that encode specific proteins, and antibody traps that bind and assemble the nascent proteins. Using transmission electron microscopy imaging we show that protein nanotubes synthesized on the biochip surface in the presence of antibody traps efficiently assembled on these traps, but pre-assembled nanotubes were not effectively captured. Moreover, synthesis of green fluorescent protein from its immobilized gene generated a gradient of captured proteins decreasing in concentration away from the gene source. This biochip could be used to create spatial patterns of proteins assembled on surfaces. 041b061a72


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